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ARRL Letter


The ARRL Letter
Vol. 23, No. 17
April 23, 2004


* +A "line in the sand" on BPL interference mitigation
* +FCC cites "homeland security" in approving RFID tags on 70 cm
* +Five hams now aboard the International Space Station
* +Illinois amateurs support storm relief, recovery
* +FCC levies $11,000 fine on California
* +Kansas amateur wins Goldfarb Scholarship
*  Solar Update
     This weekend on the radio
     ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration
     International Marconi Day event set for April 24-25 weekend
    +Oklahoma hams respond to severe weather emergency
     Rodrigues Island DXpedition tops 150,000 contacts
     "AmExpo" to spotlight Amateur Radio at major airshow
     Gary Gordon, K6KV, wins QST Cover Plaque Award

+Available on ARRL Audio News



In an e-mail this week to the FCC, an electric utility testing broadband
over power line (BPL) systems in the Raleigh, North Carolina, area has
drawn a virtual line in the sand on how far it plans to go to mitigate
interference to Amateur Radio. Responding this week to the FCC about BPL
interference complaints from hams, Progress Energy Corp (PEC) told the FCC
that his company has eliminated any harmful interference from its BPL
trial site and now complies with FCC rules.

"It is PEC's position and interpretation of the FCC's rules with regard to
'harmful interference' that any interference that may still exist is not
'harmful' as that term is defined by the FCC's rules," Len Anthony, PEC's
attorney for regulatory affairs, told James Burtle, chief of the FCC's
Experimental License Branch. "This level of interference does not
seriously degrade ham radio operation or transmissions or cause repeated
interruptions." Some, but not all, of PEC's BPL field trials are covered
by an FCC Part 5 experimental license.

The FCC defines as "harmful" any interference that "seriously degrades,
obstructs or repeatedly interrupts a radiocommunication service operating
in accordance with the Radio Regulations."

Anthony claimed that since PEC can modify its Amperion BPL system to
totally eliminate interference to fixed stations, "the only impact of any
kind upon ham operations is upon mobile operators." PEC concluded that
since BPL interference to mobiles would be "very short lived," the company
is not causing harmful interference and is in "full compliance" with FCC
Part 15 rules.

ARRL North Carolina Public Information Officer Gary Pearce, KN4AQ,
suggests PEC has a bit more work to do. He is among local amateurs closely
monitoring BPL deployment in the test zones and cooperating with PEC and
Amperion to work out any interference issues. Pearce says interference
remains on the top end of 20 meters in an overhead-line field trial
neighborhood where PEC recently had tweaked its system.

"Nothing had changed," he told ARRL after visiting the neighborhood in the
wake of Anthony's e-mail. "They were still covering up the top end of the
20-meter band." Interference to 17 and 12 meters had been notched out, but
beyond that, BPL interference persisted from 14.290 to nearly 17 MHz, he
said, and "fringe" carriers still encroached some 100 kHz into the bottom
of 15 meters. Interference had not been mitigated at all in neighborhoods
with underground power service, he said.

Progress Energy has been operating its "Phase II" trial in three
neighborhoods south of Raleigh since early January. The area, in Wake
County, is largely rural or lightly settled.

No hams live in the underground-wired neighborhood, so none complained,
Pearce said. The handful of BPL interference complaints eventually lodged
with the FCC came from amateurs living closer to the overhead-wired
neighborhood, and some were from mobile operators.

Pearce said PEC's stance regarding mobile stations "sets a new bar" in
interpreting harmful interference. "Hams have never been asked to accept
that level of interference before," he said, noting that mobiles driving
by a power line can hear the signal for "a mile or so."

The ARRL's BPL strategy calls for the League to seek a radiated emission
limit sufficient to protect the estimated 70,000 Amateur Radio mobile
stations in the US. ARRL field observations using typical amateur
equipment have documented BPL interference to mobile stations located
hundreds of meters from BPL interference sources.

Pearce says the North Carolina hams will respond to Progress Energy and
the FCC to disagree with its interpretation of "harmful interference" and
its conclusion regarding interference to mobiles.

While he maintains that controlling BPL in a small trial area like his
should not be that difficult, "having BPL buzzing across all the power
lines in a large city is another story entirely, and that's what we're
worried about."

ARRL CEO David Sumner framed the situation another way. "If BPL emissions
block weak signals that otherwise would be usable, that is harmful
interference and they must remedy it," he said. "Progress Energy has as
much as admitted that they can't. The only thing left for them to do is to
shut their system down and get back to their basic business of supplying
electrical energy."

Additional information about BPL and Amateur Radio is on the ARRL Web site


The FCC has adopted a somewhat limited version of its earlier proposal to
permit deployment of RF Identification (RFID) tags in a segment of the
70-cm band at much greater duty cycles than current Part 15 rules permit
for such devices and at higher field strengths. Among other applications,
RFID tags are used to track shipments and packing containers. A Third
Report and Order (R&O) in ET Docket 01-278
released this week follows a 2000 petition by SAVI Technology to revise
FCC Part 15 rules to accommodate such devices in the vicinity of 433 MHz.
The ARRL has consistently opposed the proposal, but FCC just as
unfailingly has tried to accommodate it. FCC Office of Engineering and
Technology (OET) Chief Ed Thomas said RFIDs provide important public

"This item is designed to increase homeland security at ports, rail yards
and warehouses," Thomas told the FCC open meeting. "It will foster the
development of more powerful and advanced RFID systems that can identify
the contents of shipping containers and determine whether tampering has
occurred during shipment." Thomas said the devices also would increase
efficiency in shipping operations and inventory control.

ARRL General Counsel Chris Imlay, W3KD, said SAVI has been raising the
issue of homeland security in association with this proceeding for several
months now. "This is the first time the FCC has acknowledged the
argument," Imlay said, "but it helps the Commission justify the complete
abandonment of its periodic radiator rules, and helps justify its
abandonment of its custodial role of a natural resource."

In requesting Commission adoption, OET's Hugh van Tuyl provided the broad
strokes of the Part 15 rule changes, which, he said, would apply
specifically to commercial shipping containers "in commercial and
industrial areas." In certain cases, he asserted, current Part 15
requirements aimed at preventing interference to licensed services "may
unnecessarily constrain the operational range of RFID systems as well as
the speed and quantity of data that can be transmitted."

The Third R&O not only would increase the maximum radiated field strength
permitted for such devices but their maximum permissible transmission
period as well--from one second to one minute. "While the maximum
[emission] level would be greater than currently allowed," van Tuyl said,
"it would still be only one-half of the level permitted for devices such
as garage door openers, which also operate in this band." The longer
authorized transmission period would allow an RFID to transmit the
contents of an entire shipping container, he pointed out.

"We therefore believe there will be no significant increase in the
potential for interference to authorized services," van Tuyl concluded.

The FCC made peace with the National Telecommunications and Information
Administration (NTIA) on the RFID tag issue. In 2002, the NTIA--citing the
likelihood of interference to critical government radars-expressed "grave
concerns" about the proposal to permit deployment of the RFIDs.

The Third R&O reflects certain accommodations that SAVI had offered in
response to the 2002 NTIA study. It limits the operating band for such
RFID tags to 433.5 to 434.5 MHz, instead of the 425 to 435 MHz SAVI
originally wanted. It further would prohibit operation of RFID tag systems
within 40 km (about 25 miles) of five government radar sites.
Manufacturers of 433 MHz RFID systems would have to register the locations
of their system base stations to assist in resolving interference

Since SAVI first approached the FCC in 2000, ARRL has maintained that the
RFID tags the company proposed represented a significant source of
potential interference to sensitive receivers. Operating near-continuous
duty Part 15 in the vicinity of 433 MHz "is fundamentally incompatible
with incumbent amateur operation," the ARRL told the FCC.

More than 130 amateurs filed comments in opposition to SAVI Technology's
RFID tags proposal, and most supported the ARRL's position that the
proposed rules were flawed and should not be adopted.


There now are five ham radio operators aboard the International Space
Station (ISS). Expedition 9 ISS crew members Gennady Padalka, RN3DT, and
Mike Fincke, KE5AIT, accompanied by European Space Agency astronaut André
Kuipers, PI9ISS, arrived at the ISS right on schedule April 21 aboard a
Russian Soyuz vehicle. They joined Expedition 8 crew members Mike Foale,
KB5UAC, and Sasha Kaleri, U8MIR, whom Padalka and Fincke will relieve.

Fincke told reporters April 23 that being aboard the ISS was "everything
I've ever hoped for" and said he's "ready for the challenge" of living in
space for the next six months. Both he and Foale also expressed confidence
that the new crew can deal with this week's failure of a second control
moment gyroscope (CMG) that leaves the ISS with the minimum two gyros.
Fincke said he was prepared to do a space walk if necessary to repair the
down units. "It's not a problem at all," he said. "We've trained in
Houston . . . we've got spares on board  . . . and we're ready to go when
and if necessary."

During their six-month tour of duty, Padalka, 45, will serve as Expedition
9 commander, while Fincke, 36, will be the NASA ISS science officer and
flight engineer.

The docking of the Soyuz spacecraft initiated a nine-day handover period
now under way. During his visit aboard the space outpost, Kuipers will
conduct a couple of Amateur Radio on the International Space Station
(ARISS) <> school group contacts and carry out
scientific experiments under a commercial agreement between the ESA and
Russia. He'll return to Earth April 29 with Foale and Kaleri aboard the
older Soyuz vehicle now attached to the ISS.

The Expedition 8 crew has so far spent 186 days onboard the station. NASA
says Foale and Kaleri will be exercising rigorously in the days before
their return to condition themselves for the effects of Earth's gravity
upon their return.


Illinois ARRL Section Emergency Coordinator Pat Ryan, KC6VVT, reports
Amateur Radio Emergency Service (ARES) team members and local radio
amateurs in LaSalle County--nearly 100 miles southwest of Chicago--this
week supported American Red Cross relief and recovery efforts in the wake
of tornados April 20 that left at least eight people dead. LaSalle,
Putnam, Kankakee and Will counties were designated as disaster areas.
Especially hard hit was the LaSalle County town of Utica, where the
downtown area was devastated.

"There was an outstanding turnout by local and nearby hams," Ryan told
ARRL. "Many local hams are assisting in recovery efforts and damage
assessment." In addition, SKYWARN teams and severe weather spotters
"helped greatly throughout the area to spread the word of the approaching
tornado tracking across many counties.

LaSalle County ARES Emergency Coordinator Frank Carraro, KF9NZ, said he'd
settled down to read a book when he began hearing weather-spotter reports
of approaching tornados. He said it soon became obvious that Utica had
been badly hit. "All the electric power was out, the roads were clogged
with debris and panicked residents of the area--some trying to get in, and
some trying to get out," he said.

Jim Stefkovich, KD5HLE, the meteorologist in charge at the National
Weather Service (NWS) Chicago Forecast Office, expressed gratitude for
Amateur Radio’s assistance in providing ground-level storm reports. "This
was a true team effort, and I truly appreciate everything that was done
from everyone in the Amateur Radio Community," he said. "I could not be
more proud of everyone's efforts."

Ryan, who lives in LaSalle County, reports that after the N9OUW Tri-County
repeater was knocked off the air, owner Rich Grimshaw, N9OUW, and Kurt
Clausen, KB9RKU, installed a deep-cycle battery from the Starved Rock
Radio Club to get the machine back up. “This essential ham repeater then
provided ideal coverage to link the downtown Utica area below the Illinois
River bluff for further operation by the many amateurs responding,” he
noted. “It was the critical link for this area.”

The reactivated repeater supported disaster recovery efforts coordinated
by the Illinois Valley Red Cross chapter in Peru. Simplex nets were
activated in the Utica area on 2 meters to support shelter operations and
disaster assessment and to minimize battery drain at the repeater. Grundy
County amateurs also turned out to assist in LaSalle County.

LaSalle County Assistant EC Joe Tokarz, KB9EZZ, said some 30 amateurs
responded in his county alone. With telephone service being restored by
week's end, Amateur Radio's role was beginning to wind down, he said. He
encouraged hams to take advantage of ARRL's Amateur Radio Emergency
Communications on-line classes, weather-spotter classes as well as other
available emergency preparedness training to be ready. In this situation,
he noted, there wasn't much advance warning.

Ryan reports "outstanding assistance" from Community Emergency Response
Teams throughout Northern Illinois. Twisters also hit the town of
Granville in Putnam County.

Salvation Army Team Emergency Network <> National
Director Pat McPherson, WW9E, reports Salvation Army canteens have been
roving stricken neighborhoods providing food, beverages and respite and
assisting with damage assessment and cleanup.

"We used SKYWARN and our SATERN folks to keep us abreast of reports as the
weather conditions turned sour, and they turned out to be invaluable
assets in determining the course of the tornados," said McPherson, who's
headquartered in Chicago.

Will County ARES Emergency Coordinator Rob Sobkoviak, K9NYO, said tornados
destroyed one house and damaged dozens of other homes and businesses in
Joliet. He said The Salvation Army--with SATERN support--was called in to
assist with damage assessment and cleanup and to provide meals to affected
residents and emergency workers. Sobkoviak also cited the efforts of the
ARES Severe Weather Net and of numerous weather spotters. Will County
amateurs staffed ARES stations at local emergency operations centers and
at the National Weather Service in Chicago.

"These guys are true heroes," Sobkoviak said of his ARES team members.


The FCC has issued a Notice of Apparent Liability for Forfeiture (NAL) to
Daniel Granda, KA6VHC, proposing to fine the Whittier, California, man
$11,000 for allegedly "willfully and repeatedly" violating the
Communications Act of 1934 and Amateur Service (Part 97) rules. The FCC
asserted that on at least eight occasions, Granda, 58, "willfully and
maliciously caused interference to other stations and conducted activity
in an effort to obtain exclusive use" of a 1.25 meter repeater pair.

"Specifically, we find Mr Granda apparently liable for failure to respond
to official Commission correspondence and causing intentional interference
to amateur radio communications," the FCC said in the NAL, released March
31. In December 2002, the FCC's Enforcement Bureau issued a Warning Notice
to Granda alleging that he deliberately interfered with two repeaters,
KD6ZLZ and WA6NJJ. Granda failed to respond to that and to subsequent
notices, including one from the FCC's Los Angeles Field Office, the NAL

Agents from the FCC's LA office subsequently used direction-finding
techniques to track interfering signals to Granda's residence, the NAL
said. FCC agents inspected his station on April 15, 2003, and found radio
equipment capable of transmitting on all of the frequencies involved. The
FCC says Granda "orally admitted" that he had received the warning notices
from the Commission. The NAL says Granda told the agents he was "trying to
prevent anyone from using 'his' frequency by re-transmitting 147.49 MHz
signals on 222.24/223.84 MHz to 'keep the channel occupied.'" The
following day, an FCC agent observed that audio from 147.49 MHz was being
retransmitted onto 222.24/223.84 MHz from Granda's residence, the NAL

Based on the evidence, the FCC said, it determined that Granda had caused
malicious interference and transmitted signals "in an attempt to
exclusively use a frequency." The FCC gave Granda 30 days to pay the
proposed forfeiture or file for a reduction or cancellation.

Last August, the Wireless Telecommunications Bureau set aside the grant of
renewal of Granda's Amateur Extra class license, which expired last
November. His renewal application has reverted to "pending" status.
Although his call sign no longer appears in the FCC database, he does have
interim operating privileges at least until the enforcement action is


Jonathan Krenzel, KC0AMG, a senior at Wichita County High School in Leoti,
Kansas, is the 2004 winner of the William R. Goldfarb Memorial
Scholarship. ARRL Foundation <> President Tom
Frenaye, K1KI, and Scholarship Committee Chairman Tom Comstock, N5TC,
announced Krenzel's selection April 20.

A Technician licensee since 1997 and an ARRL member, Krenzel, 18, enjoys
operating SSB on 6 and 2 meters and 70 cm. He's active in various VHF-UHF
operating events and in DXing as well as high-speed meteor scatter work.
His father, Gary, is N0KQY.

A member of the National Honor Society, Krenzel is ranked at the top of
his class. Numerous other honors, including Who's Who among High School
Students and designation as a Presidential Scholar, complement his
outstanding academic resume. He was among 15 top Kansas high schoolers
honored this week by the University of Kansas Alumni Association and the
KU Endowment Association. In 2002, he took a silver medal in the Kansas
Science Olympiad. His community activities include church youth projects
and participation at schools, nursing homes and food drives.

Krenzel plans to attend Wichita State University in the fall, majoring in
aerospace engineering with a goal of one day working for NASA.

The Goldfarb Scholarship is the result of a generous endowment from the
late William Goldfarb, N2ITP. The Goldfarb Scholarship assists a qualified
student to obtain a bachelor's degree at an accredited institution of
higher education in computers, engineering, the sciences, medical/nursing
or a business-related area. The four-year award to an active radio amateur
is based on outstanding qualifications, financial need and the
availability of other educational funding sources.

More information on the Goldfarb Scholarship is available on the ARRL Web
site <>. Applications for the
Goldfarb Scholarship and other ARRL Foundation Scholarship applications
are accepted each year beginning October 1 and ending February 1 for the
academic year that starts the following August/September.


Propagation guru Tad "Dancing in Sunshine" Cook, K7RA, Seattle,
Washington, reports: Solar flux and sunspot numbers rose this week, and
geomagnetic indices were down. Although still headed down the far side of
solar cycle 23, rising sunspot counts and lower geomagnetic disturbances
are great for HF propagation.

Over the next few days, April 23-25, solar flux should stay around 120.
It's expected to drop to around 115, 115 and 110 April 26-27. Planetary A
index may rise to around 15 or higher on Saturday and Sunday, April 24-25,
due to a solar windstream, especially if the interplanetary magnetic field
points south. Currently the field is pointing north, protecting Earth from
solar wind. There is a possibility of effects from a coronal hole reaching
Earth this Sunday, April 25.

Returning activity as the sun rotates relative to Earth could cause a
larger rise in geomagnetic activity around May 3.

This week's update has a new index added to the numbers at the end of the
bulletin. The middle latitude numbers reflect conditions experienced by
the majority amateurs in North America living below the 50th parallel.

Sunspot numbers for April 15 through 21 were 60, 53, 55, 92, 108, 96 and
98, with a mean of 80.3. The 10.7 cm flux was 96.7, 96.9, 98.2, 109,
113.4, 110.7 and 112.7, with a mean of 105.4. Estimated planetary A
indices were 6, 12, 9, 11, 6, 4 and 5, with a mean of 7.6. Estimated
mid-latitude A indices were 3, 10, 6, 6, 4, 4 and 6, with a mean of 5.6.



* This weekend on the radio: The SP DX RTTY Contest, the Helvetia Contest
(CW/SSB/digital), the QRP to the Field event, the Florida, Kentucky and
Nebraska QSO parties and the CQC PSK31 Kontest are the weekend of April
24-25. JUST AHEAD: The EUCW/FISTS QRS Party is April 25-May 1. JUST AHEAD:
The New England QSO Party, the US IPARC Annual Contest (CW), the MARAC
County Hunters Contest (CW), the UBA Welcome to European Union Contest,
the 10-10 International Spring Contest (CW), the Microwave Spring Sprint,
the AGCW QRP/QRP Party, the Indiana QSO Party, the ARI International DX
Contest, the US IPARC Annual Contest (SSB) and the RSGB 80-Meter Club
Championship (SSB) are the weekend of May 1-2. The ARS Spartan Sprint is
May 4. See the ARRL Contest Branch page <>
and the WA7BNM Contest Calendar
<> for more info.

* ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration:
Registration for the ARRL HF Digital Communication (EC-005), ARRL
VHF/UHF--Beyond the Repeater (EC-008) and ARRL Technician Licensing
(EC-010) courses remains open through Sunday, April 25. Classes begin
Tuesday May 4. Students participating in VHF/UHF--Beyond the Repeater
(EC-008) will enjoy exploring some of the lesser-used and more intriguing
aspects of VHF/UHF operation. HF Digital Communication students will learn
to use a variety of HF digital modes. With the assistance of a mentor
students in Technician Licensing (EC-010) will learn everything they need
to know to pass the FCC Technician class amateur license test. To learn
more, visit the ARRL Certification and Continuing Education (C-CE)
<<>> Web page or contact the ARRL Certification
and Continuing Education Program Department <>;.

* International Marconi Day event set for April 24-25 weekend: Dozens of
stations are expected to be on the air the weekend of April 24-25 to mark
the 17th annual International Marconi Day (IMD). The 24-hour event
commemorates the birth of wireless pioneer Guglielmo Marconi, who was born
April 25, 1874. (IMD is usually held on the Saturday closest to Marconi's
birthday.) The event is an opportunity for amateurs around the world to
make contact with "Award Stations" on the air from various historic
Marconi sites, such as VO1IMD on Signal Hill in Newfoundland, the Maritime
Radio Historical Society's K6KPH in California (at the former KPH
receiving site) and W1AA/MSC on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. Members
of the Cornish Radio Amateur Club (G4CRC) will be among them, operating as
GB4IMD. Awards are available. A complete list of stations that will be on
the air as well as additional information about IMD are on the CRAC Web
site <>.

* Oklahoma hams respond to severe weather emergency: ARRL Oklahoma Section
Manager John Thomason, WB5SYT, reports that Amateur Radio Emergency
Service teams responded after tornados, severe thunderstorms and
hailstorms struck the state April 20 and 21. "Several ARES groups assisted
in severe weather spotting, radar analysis, city shelter management and
damage assessment," Thomason told ARRL. "Severe thunderstorms with large
hail, heavy rain and tornadoes struck Oklahoma for the second day
consecutive day. A tornado warning lasted for almost an hour. Hail the
size of baseballs punished people and vehicles." Thomason said hail
accumulation on roadways made travel difficult, and the National Weather
Service at one point had most of the state's 77 counties under a tornado
watch. As of mid-week, several hundred residents remained without power.
The ARRL-affiliated Southern Oklahoma ARES club in Ardmore provided
numerous weather spotters and radar interpreters to assist public service
agencies. The Ardmore Amateur Radio group's activity, including a picture
of Matt Jones, W5FLW, were reported in the April 22 edition of The Daily
Ardmoreite <>.
Thomason said the Edmond Amateur Radio Society--an ARRL Special Service
Club--provided spotters and shelters monitors in that community. "Other
ARES groups throughout Oklahoma provided similar support to city and
county emergency service entities," Thomason said.

* Rodrigues Island DXpedition tops 150,000 contacts: The recent Project
Star Reach 3B9C DXpedition <> to
Rodrigues Island (AF-017) shut down April 12 at approximately 0300 UTC.
The DXpedition was the recipient of an ARRL Colvin Award. 3B9C on-line
logs <> remain available. The
DXpedition was sponsored by the Five Star DXers Association (FSDXA), with
assistance from many others. QSL direct to FSDXA, PO Box 73, Church
Stretton SY6 6WF UK or via the RSGB QSL Bureau. Much more information plus
a form to request bureau cards is available on the 3B9C Web page
<>.--some information via The Daily DX

* "AmExpo" to spotlight Amateur Radio at major airshow: Amateur Radio
special event station N2M will be on the air May 1 and 2 in conjunction
with the annual Millville Wheels & Wings Airshow in New Jersey. "AmExpo
commemorates the advancement of radio communications conducted at this
location during World War II," says Hugh McElroy, W2AVN, who's chairman of
the board of directors for the Millville army Air Field Museum. McElroy
calls the special event "a celebration of radio and technology" during the
airshow, which annually attracts upward of 150,000 visitors. Vintage and
modern radio gear will be available, and multiple Amateur Radio clubs are
providing operators. "We wish to invite all radio amateurs and radio
enthusiasts to attend and enjoy this thrilling event," McElroy said. "Our
goal is to foster Amateur Radio and to generate new radio amateurs." He
says the N2M will be an all-band Field Day-style operation that will
include VoIP modes such as EchoLink as well as satellite communication.
For more information, visit the Millville Wheels & Wings Airshow Web site
<> and the AmExpo N2M Web page
<> or e-mail McElroy

* Gary Gordon, K6KV, wins QST Cover Plaque Award: The winner of the QST
Cover Plaque Award for March is Gary Gordon, K6KV, for his article "Build
a Puff-and-Sip Keyer." Congratulations, Gary! The winner of the QST Cover
Plaque award--given to the author--or authors--of the best article in each
issue--is determined by a vote of ARRL members. Voting takes place each
month on the QST Cover Plaque Poll Web page
<>. Cast a ballot for your
favorite article in the April issue of QST. Voting ends April 30.

The ARRL Letter is published Fridays, 50 times each year, by the American
Radio Relay League--The National Association For Amateur Radio--225 Main
St, Newington, CT 06111; tel 860-594-0200; fax 860-594-0259;
<>. Jim Haynie, W5JBP, President.

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The ARRL Letter offers a weekly summary of essential news of interest to active amateurs that is available in advance of publication in QST, our official journal. The ARRL Letter strives to be timely, accurate, concise and readable.

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